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PGD is a method of examining the genetic condition of embryos before their transfer to the mother’s uterus. It can be performed for several reasons including;
Familial genetic diseases, mother’s age, strong male factor infertility, repeated IVF failure, or repeated loss of pregnancy. It is also mostly performed for all chromosomal aberrations and the following single gene disorders;
Infertility is the inability of a couple’s getting pregnant within 1 year despite a healthy sexual life (to have sexual intercourse at least 2 times a week) this problem is observed in every 1 of each 10-15 couples. 40% of the causes belong fo female and the other 40% belongs to a male and there isn’t any detected problem in the rest 10-20% and it is called as unexplained infertility – when doctors don’t know why couples can’t conceive, In-vitro Fertilization is often the best solution.
While examining the causes belonging to female; it is evaluated with the gynecologic examination, Hormonal Tests and Uterus Graph (HSG). As a result of this analysis; ovulation problems in woman, uterine abnormalities, problems due to tubas or some hormonal problems (thyroid or milk hormone abnormalities called prolactin) are revealed. Again, endometriosis, chocolate cyst disease with other names, which is a very common infertile woman can be detected in the Gynecologic examination or advanced examination. When problems of the uterus or tubas are suspected, the problems are detected with Endoscopic operations called Hysteroscopy or Laparoscopy and can be treated simultaneously.
The age of the woman is highly important in reproduction. For the case of women who are married at an advanced age; it is better to apply an infertility specialist if the age is 35 and over and can not get pregnant within 6 months and after 3 months of waiting period if the age is over 40. Moreover, the obesity of woman can cause problems both for getting pregnant and during pregnancy.
For examining the causes due to male; semen analysis is required after 3-4 days of sexual abstinence and evaluated in terms of several sperms, movements and structure. The man is consulted with a Urology Doctor dealing with infertility if there is a problem detected in the sperm analysis.
When each of the couples is evaluated as normal as the results of performed tests, they are diagnosed with unexplained infertility and it will be appropriate to inform the couple about treatment alternatives and initiating the most appropriate treatment method.
Sometimes the couples may have repeated abortions or can not have a healthy child as a result of some genetic problems. In these cases, advanced tests primarily genetic tests are requested and as the result of these tests, the couples are informed about the treatment options. At this point, opinions of the genetic specialist are requested and the couples are consulted with a genetic specialist.
The methods applied in the context of Assisted Reproductive Treatments can be expressed as; monitoring ovulation and recommendation of sexual relationship at the appropriate time (detection of ovulation time), inoculation treatment and In-vitro Fertilization treatments. It will be reported to the couples which one of these methods is the most appropriate as the result of evaluations performed by a doctor.
Ovulation monitoring and inoculation treatments are methods that initiated with menstruation and completed totally in 10-15 days that pills or low dose injections are used for ovulation monitoring. During this period the patient is asked to come to the clinic a maximum of 3 times. The chance of pregnancy with these treatments is about 20%. The principal of inoculation depends on monitoring ovulation and giving the sperm into the uterus with its best quality after washing at the exact time of ovulation.
Advanced laboratory and microinjection methods are needed for IVF. In-vitro Fertilization treatment includes the stages of; stimulation and monitoring of several numbers of ovum development of woman (by some insulin-like injections), washing and preparation of the male’s sperms, fertilisation of the ovum and sperm in the laboratory after collecting the woman’s ovum and storage and monitoring of the formed embryos in special fridges called incubators in the laboratory and after selecting the best one or two embryos inserting them to the woman’s uterus via very thin cannulas at the end. IVF treatment begins at the 2nd or 3rd days or 19th or 20th days of menstruation and totally continues for 15-30 days depending on the age of the woman and quality of the ovarian capacity. Treatment result is known after the initiation of the treatment within 1 month. Sometimes, the presence of sperm is investigated in the testicles of man via an operation called TESE Ain order to find sperms under the microscope in the laboratory in cases of no sperms in the laboratory in cases of no sperm in semen. In-vitro Fertilization Procedures are painless. At the ovum collection stage of treatment, the woman is given light anaesthesia, while embryo transfer is a procedure mainly performed painlessly. However, as the most asked question; injections are performed via insulin-like needless and patients can apply themselves easily.
IVF is far and away from the most common of the High-Tech Fertility Treatments, accounting for more than 99 per cent of all Assisted Reproductive Technology Procedures and three factors are important for the success of IVF Treatments; skilled and experienced embryologist and a technically advanced and equipped laboratory. When these three factors come together, the pregnancy chance of the couples is approximately 90% with a maximum of three IVF attempts. Although there isn’t any upper limit for the IVF attempts, most of the couples get pregnant with a maximum of 2-4 attempts.